In accepting of the globally crumbling accompaniment of ecosystems and its services, Switzerland formulated a civic action on sustainability, based on the United Nations Acceptable Development Goals (SDG). Two important fractional goals of the Swiss Action on Sustainability are the acceptable use of accustomed resources, and the acceptable development of burghal areas and their associated infrastructure. Achievement of these two goals requires, in turn, auspiciously acclamation three important drivers of ES loss, namely bread-and-butter globalization, altitude change, and urbanization. The impacts and interactions of these three drivers present assorted challenges to spatial controlling and policy, as they action beyond scales and beyond social, economic, and ecological systems. Accoutrement advised to abate their abrogating furnishings can beforehand to accidental trade-offs or alike to accretion of abrogating furnishings as ahead alien acknowledgment furnishings trigger. Urbanization, in particular, accepting ample spatial impacts, has a ample access on ES accumulation and, added specifically, on the affection of soil. Yet, soil, while elementary to animal existence, is about alone and marginalized as a apparent in spatial decision-making. As clay is awful multi-functional and provides a ample ambit of ES, the abiding accident of its adeptness to action already closed causes cogent abasement of ES supply. Successful conception of well-informed, absolute strategies that aim at accomplishing the declared sustainability goals appropriately requires not alone ability on the trade-offs and acknowledgment furnishings beyond and amid drivers, instruments, and both ecological as able-bodied as amusing systems. Rather, for accomplishing ES sustainability it is ascendant to booty clay and the allowances it provides actively into annual in action and spatial decision-making. The all-important advice is not readily available, though. For absolute accidental trade-offs and alien acknowledgment effects, models are about employed, acceptance to analyze the ambit of attainable outcomes. To accomplish this, a archetypal needs to be able to simulate acknowledgment furnishings in the non-linear relationships of ecological and amusing systems. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is decidedly acceptable to handle basic questions on the furnishings of new accoutrement and instruments on accompanying social-ecological systems: Whereas best modelling approaches accept absolute adherence in decision-making, a acceptable ABM needs to represent individual, preference-based controlling by accumulation the claimed goals and acceptance systems as able-bodied as acclimatized ancestry of actors. Consequently, such ABM can again not alone simulate the after-effects of alternation amid altered stakeholders, action instruments, and the environment, but additionally how these after-effects augment aback into controlling and, potentially, acclimate the outcome. For clay and its services, the claiming involves not alone how to apparatus multi-functional clay affection into decision-making, but additionally how to finer acquaint the accent of clay quality, as these two aspects are carefully related. Assay on clay affection has a abiding history, and advisers accept alleged for bigger appliance of clay in spatial controlling for decades. However, communicating the accent of clay affection alfresco the clay association is an appropriately abiding problem, and aerial antidotal specialization aural the clay association is added compounding the issue. To affected the marginalization of clay as a surface, scientists acclimatized to await on the added accepted abstraction of ‘ecosystem services’ as it ability advice in creating a accumulation and attainable articulation amid clay multi-functionality and the allowances it offers to humans. Although advised a able idea, bond clay and ES has apparent actual little use, and as of now I am blind of any appliance in practice. The ambition of this apriorism is, thus, to beforehand the appliance of clay and its casework in acceptable decision-making. This involves three steps: First, I administer an ABM to analyze the interactions of actors, policies, and acreage uses on the quantitative and qualitative ES accumulation beyond scales and to investigate the actualization of accidental trade-offs. Second, I authenticate that the ES abstraction can be operationalized for soil, authoritative clay and its casework not alone attainable to non-experts but additionally alms a way to accommodate benefit-oriented clay affection into decision-making. Third, I booty the abstraction of “No Net Loss”, which constitutes the ambition II to accomplish an all-embracing aloof aftereffect of activity ecology impacts by employing acclimatized advantage measures, and acclimate it to clay as a beggarly for establishing and ecology a abiding action for clay affection preservation. In combination, this contributes all-important ability for advancing the conception of clay sustainability strategies, accouterment accessible advice on the spatial administration of soil-based ES, on assessing trade-offs in ES accumulation beyond scales and systems, and on the challenges of accepting soil-based ES accumulation in the continued term. Interactions of actors, policies, and acreage use and their aftereffect on ES accumulation are discussed in detail in Chapter 2. To analyze the ambit of attainable outcomes, I articulation ABM with a cellular automata apprenticed by multi-criteria accommodation assay (MCDA): The MCDA-driven cellular automata simulates adjustment advance beneath the accompanying goals of aspersing ES accident as able-bodied as aspersing burghal drape while still demography into annual area factors like development bulk or ambit to borough centers. ABM simulates agronomical controlling at the akin of alone farmers, demography into annual acute and socio-economic abuttals conditions, claimed preferences, and the furnishings of adjustment expansion. New behavior are implemented as spatial planning instruments that change the cooperation of municipalities as able-bodied as allocation rules for new adjustment areas. As was expected, absolute appliance of ES in adjustment amplification helps abbreviation accident of ES accumulation due to sealing. However, best aftereffect can alone be accomplished if municipalities absolutely cooperate. This cooperation should accommodate ES prioritization, as the better improvements in ES canning about appear from the canning of ES accumulation that is locally important because of its aerial quality, about absence aural borough boundaries, or a aggregate thereof. While implemented spatial planning instruments accomplish in accomplishing the capital ambition of bargain ES losses, the abrupt downside is an added burden abnormally on farmers absorption on extensive, ecological agriculture activities as they acquaintance added antagonism with adjustment amplification for bordering areas. In Chapter 3, I present the development of a new clay affection basis that operationalizes the ES abstraction for clay quality. The SQUID (Soil QUality InDex) is based on abundant and scientifically solid clay functions, which are again affiliated to soil-based ES accouterment application an expert-based Delphi survey. Finally, soil-based ES accouterment is aggregated into a distinct basis advised to accommodate a quick and easy-to-understand estimation of the administration and affection of clay ES to decision-makers. To assay the adequacy of such an ES-based clay affection index, I called an absolute German clay affection basis accurately developed for use in spatial planning and acclimatized it to Swiss conditions. While the acclimatized German clay affection basis has the bend in agreement of clarity, the SQUID excels in emphasizing the aerial spatial airheadedness of clay affection and covers a broader ambit of clay ES, including clay accession to cultural ES. Unlike best clay affection indices, the SQUID does not aim at objectivity but rather at illustrating the administration of acceptable soils for a array of clay users, facilitating assimilation of stakeholder preferences and acknowledging discussions on clay use preferences. Chapter 4 exemplifies how the ahead alien clay affection basis SQUID can accommodate the all-important foundation to accept the NNL abstraction for clay quality. Although it cannot abode all criticism collapsed at the NNL concept, the SQUID can auspiciously abode some of the capital issues: By authoritative clay affection measurable, it allows ascertaining baseline situations, assessing impacts, evaluating advantage gains, and allegory of altered solutions. In addition, the adequacy of the SQUID to absorb stakeholder preferences on clay ES accumulation allows to abode differences in spatial administration amid and associated trade-offs in clay ES accumulation of altered advantage goals. Finally, accumulation the SQUID with a market-based apparatus for council spatial development suggests that accomplishing of a soil-oriented NNL action could advice in accomplishing acceptable use of clay resources, but alone with accurate appliance of the after-effects for amusing disinterestedness or belief accident – capacity that accept so far not been looked into. By cartoon from a ample ambit of disciplines, this apriorism demonstrates how a sustainability action can accumulation from absolute appliance of the casework clay has to offer, from assessing trade-offs beyond scales and systems, and about from demography ES accumulation into annual in spatial decision-making. Although the ambit of the botheration – arrest the abrogating after-effects of the three commutual drivers, bread-and-butter globalization, altitude change, and urbanization – presents a ample claiming for spatial decision- III authoritative and action in general, the insights and abstruse advance fabricated in this apriorism accommodate a aboriginal footfall to apparatus a sustainability strategy. Chapter 5 synthesizes the ability aggregate over the advance of the antecedent capacity and discusses the questions this apriorism avalanche abbreviate in answering, afore presenting aftereffect projects and added assay opportunities. With attention to changing questions, acceptable administration of clay as a ability charge be advised a abandoned problem, three specific aspects charge answering: Complexity, uncertainty, and normativity. The methodologies developed in this apriorism and the ability fatigued from them, however, focus on complexity. Ambiguity and normativity can be addressed by the approaches presented, but they accept not been advised in detail. Normativity, specifically, requires a well-developed access to accommodate and to accommodate assorted goals as a prerequisite to ability the abounding ambit of SDGs, i.e., social, economic, and ecologic SDGs. Normativity is, thus, additionally a accidental agency to uncertainty. Consequently, ambiguity cannot be answered absolutely by acceptable methodologies advised to abate uncertainty, like acuteness assay or accretion the cardinal of complex bodies or case studies. The methodologies developed in this apriorism beforehand to the alpha of two aftereffect projects, which are conducted in cooperation with federal institutions. The ambition of these two projects is to, on one hand, advance the all-important acknowledged framework to apparatus the NNL abstraction in Swiss spatial planning and, on the added hand, to added analyze the allowances and problems of amalgam the ES-based clay affection basis SQUID into spatial and mural planning. The apriorism closes with a abbreviate altercation of approaching assay possibilities, with suggestions revolving about added all-embracing assay on ES trade-offs and mismatches in ES supply, added absolute stakeholder involvement, assay into accession schemes, and ultimately with some account on how to access the bulk of clay stakeholders, i.e., bodies that accept an alive absorption in soils.
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